What is inside a solar panel
While most people are aware that solar photovoltaic (PV) panels convert sunlight to usable electricity, few are aware of the underlying science. We’re going to delve into the essentials science of solar. We will explore in detail howwork and what is inside a in this article.
Solar Energy Generation and Transmission Fundamentals
- Solar panels generate an electric field when sunlight strikes them.
- The generated power goes to the panel’s edge and into a conductive wire.
- The conductive line transports the electricity to the inverter, which converts it from direct current to alternating current, which is used to power buildings and large corporations.
How are Solar Panels Made?
Solar panels are made utilizing the six primary components detailed below and integrated with exceptional precision in modern production facilities. We shall concentrate on panels built of crystalline silicon solar cells in this article because they are by far the most prevalent and highest-performing solar technology available today.
1- Solar Photovoltaic Cells
Solar photovoltaic cells, or PV cells, convert direct current electrical energy directly from sunlight. The performance of a solar panel is controlled by the cell type and characteristics of the silicon utilized, with monocrystalline and polycrystalline silicon being the two primary varieties. The photovoltaic cell’s foundation is an extremely thin silicon wafer, generally 0.1mm thick, consisting of either positive p-type silicon or negative n-type silicon. There are numerous cell sizes and configurations available, each with a distinct level of efficiency and performance, including half-cut or split cells, multi-busbar (MBB) cells, and, more recently, shingled cells constructed from thin overlapping wafer strips.
The front glass layer shields the photovoltaic cells from the elements and impacts from hail or other flying debris. Typically, the glass is tempered glass that is between 3.0 and 4.0mm thick and is engineered to withstand mechanical loads and significant temperature changes.
Tempered glass is also significantly safer than regular glass in the event of an accident or strong impact, as it shatters into tiny fragments rather than sharp jagged parts.
3- Aluminum Structure
The aluminum frame is crucial because it protects the edge of the laminate part that houses the cells and also serves as a sturdy structure for mounting the solar panel. The extruded aluminum parts are designed to be exceptionally light, stiff, and resistant to intense stress and loading caused by high wind and external pressures.
4- Film EVA
EVA stands for ‘ethylene vinyl acetate,’ which is a specifically formulated polymer with high transparency (plastic) layer that is utilized to encapsulate and secure the cells during manufacturing. The EVA material must be exceptionally durable and resistant to extremes in temperature and humidity; it contributes significantly to the long-term functioning of the product by preventing moisture and dirt entry.
The back sheet is the final covering of most solar panels and serves as a moisture barrier and final external skin, providing mechanical and electrical protection. The back sheet material is composed of a variety of polymers or plastics, such as PP, PET, and PVF, that provide varying degrees of protection, thermal stability, and long-term UV resistance.
6- Connectors and Junction Boxes
The junction box is a small weather-resistant enclosure positioned on the panel’s rear side. It is necessary to secure the cables used to connect the panels.
While this very basic description of solar panels may make them seem like simple structures, they really are very complex. Scientists have to work extremely hard at making sure that the right materials are used in the right proportions to make the solar panels work as effectively as possible.