What are photovoltaic panels | Solar panel wholesaler

What are photovoltaic panels

A photovoltaic panel consists of a series of photovoltaic cells built from two layers of semiconductor material, one with a positive charge (P) and the other with a negative charge (N) (N). This is termed a PN junction. When an electron breaks loose, a “hole” is generated, which behaves like a positive charge.

The electron and the hole break away on either side of the PN junction (the electrons towards N and the holes towards P), causing a difference in potential (which is measured in volts) (which is measured in volts). A solar cell, therefore, provides a continuous electric current.

How it works

Solar photovoltaic is an exquisite technique that produces power from the sunlight without moving parts. In a photovoltaic cell, sunlight detaches electrons from their host silicon atoms. Tiny packets of light energy called photons are collected by electrons, and impart enough energy to kick the electron free of its host atom. Near the upper surface of the cell is a “one-way membrane” termed a PN-junction.

The PN-junction is produced by diffusing tiny quantities of phosphorous to a depth of around one millimeter into a thin wafer of silicon. When a free electron crosses the PN-junction it cannot easily return, causing a negative voltage to arise on the surface facing the sun (and a positive voltage on the rear surface). The front and rear surfaces can be connected together via an external circuit in order to extract current, voltage, and power from the solar cell.

Solar cells are bundled under glass to make photovoltaic modules, which have typical service lives of 20 to 40 years. In many instances, solar modules put on building roofs can create as much electricity as the building needs.

A typical module will generate roughly 200-kilowatt hours (AC) per square meter per year, therefore a collector area of 25-50m2 is needed to power a relatively energy-efficient Australian house. Such a residence exports more electricity to the grid during the day than it imports at night.

Different types of photovoltaic panel

There are many types of cells and production techniques. The most commonly used semiconductor is silicon. Performance is measured initially by output: the percentage of sunlight effectively turned into electricity.

Amongst panels offered commercially, are available from the least to the most expensive:

  • amorphous silicon (6 to 8% output);
  • polycrystalline silicon (12%);
  • polycrystalline silicon (15%).

Final Words

Photovoltaic technology is the direct conversion of light into electricity at the atomic level. The photoelectric effect was first noted by a French physicist, Edmund Becquerel, in 1839. In 1905, Albert Einstein described the nature of light and the photo electric effect, which photovoltaic technology is based on. During the energy crisis in the 1970s, photovoltaic became recognized as a source of power for non-space applications.

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