Photovoltaic Panel, its types, and how they work?￼
Photovoltaic (PV) systems generate energy directly from sunlight through an electrochemical reaction that occurs naturally in particular types of materials called semiconductors. Solar energy liberates electrons in these materials, which can then be induced to travel through an electrical circuit, powering electrical devices or transmitting electricity to the grid.
Solar photovoltaic (PV) panels catch the sun’s energy and convert it to electricity that may be used in your home.
Solar panels enable you to generate sustainable energy.
How do photovoltaic (PV) panels work?
In the solar panel, photons impact and ionize the semiconductor material, causing the outer electrons to break free of their atomic connections and become free. Because of the semiconductor structure, electrons are forced to flow in a single direction, resulting in the generation of an electrical current.
Photovoltaic Panel Types
PV technology is classified into three broad categories:
Thin-film Photovoltaic Panel
It is a rapidly developing but still relatively tiny segment of the commercial solar market. Numerous thin-film companies are start-ups developing novel technologies. They are typically less efficient – but frequently less expensive.
Concentrating Photovoltaic Panel
Concentrating photovoltaic panel arrays are primarily found in deserts. They do this by reflecting concentrated solar energy onto high-efficiency cells via lenses and mirrors. They are most effective when exposed to direct sunlight and equipped with tracking systems.
Building-integrated Photovoltaic Panel
Building-integrated Photovoltaic Panel function as both an exterior layer and a generator of electricity for on-site usage or export to the grid. BIPV panels can help save money on materials and electricity, help reduce pollution, and add to a building’s architectural appeal.
The photovoltaic (PV) effect was observed as early as 1839 by Alexandre Edmund Becquerel and was the subject of scientific inquiry through the early twentieth century. In 1954, Bell Labs in the U.S. introduced the first solar PV device that produced a useable amount of electricity. A single PV device is known as a cell; an individual PV cell is usually small, typically producing about 1 or 2 watts of power. The cost of solar photovoltaics (PV) has dropped dramatically as the industry has scaled up manufacturing and incrementally improved the technology. Modules can be used individually, or several can be connected to form arrays.
Systems also include mounting structures that point panels toward the sun, along with components that take the direct-current (DC) electricity produced by modules and convert it to AC electricity. All types of PV systems are widely used today in a variety of applications.