How to setup solar panel system
Setup thesystem doesn’t happen overnight – there’s a procedure for what has to happen before your house is utilizing solar power and maybe contributing to the electrical grid.
Main components of a solar panel system
Below are the basic and typical components and gadgets are required for a solar panel system installation at home. Details of each gadget is provided below each section.
Solar panel also known as Solar Cell or Photo Voltaic Cell is the backbone of. There are several kinds of such as polycrystalline and monocrystalline. Monocrystalline is more efficient and tiny bit costlier as compared to polycrystalline solar panels. The choosing factors for a solar panel are diverse i.e. space, warranty, efficiency, technology kind, pricing etc. Keep in mind that output is the king when picking a quality solar panel for home solar power installation.
In general, the solar panel is directly connected to the charge controller but there are different connection of solar panel arrays such as series and parallel connection which depends on load calculation and specific energy requirement for home appliances, battery bank connection, roof surface space, climate and peak sunshine hours.
As the name indicates, a charge controller (also known as charge regulator) is a device which is used to manage the voltage and current from the solar panels linked to the batteries. The primary aim of a charge controller is to avoid the overcharging of batteries (which may lead to damage the battery as well) using solar panels as 12V solar panels supplied 17-20V in case of no load or full sunlight. The explanation for this image is that manufacture desin a solar panel for varied climate and environment so that, you obtain the max rated voltage in case of cloud cover, poor sunlight and thick haze etc.
There are numerous kinds of charge controllers are available in the market such as follow:
- Simple – 1 and 2 Stage Charge Controllers
- PWM (Pulse Width Modulation) – 3 Stage Charge Controllers
- MPPT (Maximum Power Point Tracking) Controllers
Batteries are utilized for backup charge storage. there are several kinds of batteries used in solar power system for storage and backup operation during nights when the direct electricity from solar panels are not accessible. In case of clouds and no sunlight, the battery bank may be charged by AC input from the grid through inverter for later usage.
The following fig depicts a 150Ah, 12V. The battery is directly linked to the charge controller which regulates the incoming charging currents and voltage from the photovoltaic cell connected to the charge controller for backup storage and operation.
Inverter / UPS
Inverter is a device which convert the DC power source to the AC power supply. Inverter and converter which known as UPS (Uninterruptible Power Supply) is used to convert the DC voltage to AC for AC driven household appliances. UPS is also used to convert the AC to DC to charge the battery from direct AC power source.
There are numerous varieties of inverters available in the market according to your demands such as follow:
- Centralized or String Inverter with less cost but inefficient.
- Power Optimizer used to convert DC to AC and linked to central inverter.
- Micro Inverter has smooth and steady operation even with limited sunlight yet pricey.
Choosing the right type of solar panel for your home or business depends on many factors such as sunshine hours, load requirements and types of batteries used in the system. Monocrystalline solar panels are better option than polycrystalline but they are little bit expensive.