How to make solar panel
Solar photovoltaic modules are made up of solar cells, glass, EVA, a back sheet, and a frame. Learn more about the components and manufacturing process of a.
The materials used to manufacture solar panel cells are only one component of the solar panel. The manufacturing process of a solar panel combines six distinct components to create a functional solar panel.
The following diagram illustrates the common components of a solar panel:
Solar cells made of silicon: Silicon solar cells utilize the photovoltaic effect to convert sunlight to electricity. Between the glass panels, silicon cells are soldered together in a matrix-like structure. They interact with the thin glass wafer sheet and generate an electric charge.
Frame made of metal (typically aluminum): The metal frame of a solar panel is advantageous for a variety of reasons, including protection against inclement weather and other potentially dangerous situations, as well as assisting in mounting the solar panel at the desired angle.
Sheets of glass: Although the glass casing sheet is typically only 6-7 millimeters thick, it plays a critical role in protecting the silicon solar cells inside.
Typical 12V wire: A 12V wire assists in regulating the amount of energy transferred into your inverter, thereby enhancing the module’s sustainability and efficiency.
The manufacturing process of
Solar panels are composed of monocrystalline or polycrystalline silicon solar cells that have been soldered together and covered with anti-reflective glass. The photovoltaic effect begins when light strikes the solar cells, and electricity is generated. The five critical steps in the manufacture of a solar panel are as follows:
1- Construct the solar cells
Solar cells are the primary component of a solar panel. P-type or n-type solar cells are made from a mixture of crystalline silicon and either gallium or boron. When phosphorus is added to the mix, the cells become electrical conductors. After cutting the silicon ingot into thin sheets, it is coated with an anti-reflective layer. The cells are then cut with thin slits to direct the flow of electricity.
2- Solar cells are connected in series to form a panel.
After phosphorus charges the silicon wafers, metal connectors are used to connect each solar cell in a process called soldering. The number of cells soldered together at the same time is determined by the size of the solar panel is manufactured. To provide context, 60 cell panels are considered standard, while 72 cell panels are typically used for commercial projects.
3- Install a back sheet, a layer of the front glass, and a frame.
For protection, a back sheet is attached to the bottom of the solar cells. It is typically made of an ultra-durable plastic material. Following that, a thin glass sheet is installed on top of the solar cells to allow sunlight to pass through. These components are joined using a glue called ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA). All of these components are contained within a metal frame that secures roof mounting clamps.
4- Connect the junction box.
The junction box protects the wiring of a solar panel from damage and ensures that electricity flows freely from the panel to the inverter, preventing electricity from reversing direction. This functionality is critical during periods when a solar panel is unable to generate electricity, as the panel will attempt to consume energy instead. The junction box prevents any reversal of electric flow, ensuring that your solar panels operate properly.
5- Quality assurance
Each solar panel that is released to the market is tested under Standard Test Conditions (STC) to ensure that it meets the manufacturer’s projected outputs, efficiencies, and other technical specifications. Panels are placed in a flash tester and exposed to “standard” conditions: 1000W/m2 irradiance, 25°C cell temperature, and a 1.5g air mass. If the solar panel passes, it is ready for shipment and installation.