How solar panel work | Solar panel wholesaler

How solar panel work

Solar photovoltaic (PV) cells convert sunlight to electricity. When light strikes a solar cell’s semiconductor material, electrons are released, generating an electric current.

A solar panel, or photovoltaic panel, is a frame that houses numerous solar cells. The greater the number of solar panels joined together, the more electricity is generated.

Solar panels generate direct current (DC) electricity, not alternating current (AC). We attach the solar panels to an inverter, which converts the direct power to alternating current.

This solar-generated clean electricity can be used to substitute electricity generated by the national grid or a generator, eradicating all of the harm caused by fossil-fuel-generated electricity.

Let us examine the process of solar energy generation.

How does a photovoltaic solar panel work?

To begin, the word “solar panel” is a broad one. It can refer to one of two distinct types of systems:

Solar photovoltaic (PV) panels: their major role is to generate electricity, but they can also provide thermal energy when paired with a high-efficiency heat pump of the current generation;

Thermal solar panels: these enable the creation of thermal energy by raising the temperature of a liquid, typically water, that flows from the rooftop panels to the household heating system.

The former is the most frequently used for residential installation. A solar panel is made up of numerous photovoltaic cells connected in series: the photovoltaic unit is what converts sunlight to electricity. Photons, the energy-carrying “particles” generated by sunlight’s electromagnetic waves, stimulate silicon atoms, causing them to release electrons and thereby generating an electrical flow. How?

Typically, a photovoltaic cell is a multilayer silicon unit capable of converting and transporting energy via the opposing charges generated by the photovoltaic effect in the semimetal. Manufacturers of solar panels are able to achieve this effect by the use of doped silicon, a semiconductor material modified with trace amounts of other materials that can generate a positive or negative electrical charge on each side of the unit.

The two materials most frequently used to dope silicon in a photovoltaic cell are

  • phosphorus, in the upper layer of silicon: this has a negative charge, so it adds more electrons to the layer
  • boron, in the lower layer: this generates fewer electrons and therefore contributes to achieving and maintaining a positive charge when the solar cell is exposed to sunlight.

As a result, the doped silicon enables the formation of an electromagnetic field capable of receiving sunlight. The photons, which are similar to billions of ping-pong balls, strike the panels and excite the free electrons in the cell; the electric field formed by the panel forces the excited electrons out of the silicon unit and toward the grid. On the sidewalls of the solar cell, normally silver metal plates collect electrons as electrical energy and transport them via electrical wiring. While numerous cell forms and architectures exist, the fundamental principles of activity are universal.

Final Words

Using solar panels is a very practical way to produce electricity for many applications. Living off-grid means living in a location that is not serviced by the main electric utility grid. Remote homes and cabins benefit nicely from solar power systems. A solar electric system is potentially less expensive and can provide power for upwards of three decades if properly maintained.

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